Board of Directors
Katrine Bosley has served as a member of our board of directors since March 2013 and as our chairperson since August 2013. Ms. Bosley is the Chief Executive Officer of Editas Medicine Inc. ("Editas"), a position to which she was appointed in June 2014. Prior to Editas, Ms. Bosley was the Entrepreneur-in-Residence at The Broad Institute from September 2013 to May 2014. She served as Chief Executive Officer of Avila Therapeutics Inc. ("Avila"), from May 2009 to March, 2012, when Avila was acquired by Celgene Corporation. Before Avila, she was Vice President, Strategic Operations at Adnexus Therapeutics Inc. ("Adnexus"), a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and was Vice President, Business Development at Adnexus before that. She joined Adnexus from Biogen Idec where she held roles in business development, commercial operations, and portfolio strategy in the United States and Europe and led the in-licensing of Tysabri (natalizumab) among a number of other transactions. Earlier, she was part of the healthcare team at the venture firm Highland Capital Partners from 1993 to 1995. In addition to serving as a director of our Company, Ms. Bosley currently serves as a director of Galapagos NV and Scholar Rock LLC. She also is a member of the BIO Governing Board for Emerging Companies. Ms. Bosley graduated from Cornell University with a B.A. in Biology.
Kenneth Bate has served as a member of our board of directors since September 2014. Mr. Bate is currently a director of AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Catabasis Pharmaceuticals, Epizyme Inc and Vanda Pharmaceuticals. Mr. Bate previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Archemix Corp. and NitroMed Inc., Chief Financial Officer of Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Biogen Inc., and co-founded JSB Partners LLC, a banking and advisory services firm for biopharmaceutical and life sciences companies. He holds a M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. from Williams College.
Kevin Bitterman, Ph.D. has served as a member of our board of directors since August 2006. Dr. Bitterman serves as a partner at Polaris Partners ("Polaris"), where he has been employed since 2004 and where he focuses on investments in life sciences companies. Prior to joining Polaris, Dr. Bitterman completed his Ph.D. in Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Bitterman was the founding CEO at Visterra Inc., Editas Medicine Inc. and Morphic Rock Therapeutic Inc. In additional to representing Polaris as a director of our Company, he currently represents Polaris as a director of Editas Medicine Inc., InSeal Medical, Kala Pharmaceuticals, Morphic Rock Therapeutic Inc. Neuronetics, Inc., Visterra, Inc., TARIS Biomedical, and Vets First Choice. He received a Ph.D. in Genetics from Harvard Medical School and a B.S. in Biology from Rutgers College.
William Clark has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since February 2011. Previously he served as our Chief Business Officer from August 2010 to February 2011. Mr. Clark has served on our board of directors since February 2011. Prior to joining our Company, he served as Chief Business Officer at Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Vanda"), a biopharmaceutical company he co-founded in 2004. While at Vanda, he lead the company’s strategic and business development activities, and played a central role in raising more than $220 million in multiple public and private financings. Prior to Vanda, Mr. Clark was a principal at Care Capital, LLC, a venture capital firm investing in biopharmaceutical companies, after serving in a variety of commercial and strategic roles at SmithKline Beecham (now GlaxoSmithKline). Mr. Clark holds a B.A. from Harvard University and an M.B.A. from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
Ron Cooper has served as a member of our board of directors since June 2016. Mr. Cooper is President and CEO of Albireo Pharma, a position that he was appointed in June 2015. Ron is a life sciences leader with a track record of growing and rejuvenating businesses, brands and organizations – ranging from entrepreneurial, resource-constrained, up to $4.5 billion – in the U.S. and Europe. Prior to Albireo, he was with Bristol-Myers Squibb for over 25 years working in five different countries and holding positions of increasing responsibility in sales, marketing and general management culminating in President of Europe. In Europe, he was responsible for over 30 countries with sales exceeding $4.5 Billion. While at BMS, Ron was directly associated with several product successes, including Abilify®,Avapro®,Atripla®,Eliquis®,Orencia®,Pravachol®, Plavix®, Reyataz® Sustiva® Sprycel®, and Yervoy® He has successfully completed over a dozen business development deals including the creation of the first single tablet HIV/AIDS regimen partnership. Ron is a graduate of St. Francis Xavier University in Canada.
Michael Higgins has served as a member of our board of directors since February 2015. In January 2015, Mr. Higgins joined Polaris Venture Partners as an Entrepreneur-in-Residence. Prior to joining Polaris Venture Partners, Mr. Higgins served as Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer at Ironwood Pharmaceuticals ("Ironwood") from 2003 through 2014, playing a key role in Ironwood’s evolution from a privately-funded discovery organization through its initial public offering and the launch of its first commercial product. Under his leadership, the company was able to raise more than one billion dollars to help support the development of the business during that period. Prior to his work at Ironwood, from 1997 through 2003, Mr. Higgins worked at Genzyme Corporation ("Genzyme") in a variety of leadership roles including Vice President, Corporate Finance and Vice President, Business Development. While at Genzyme, he was involved with multiple businesses including the Cell Therapy, Gene Therapy, and Orphan Disease business units. Previously, Mr. Higgins served as Chief Financial Officer of Procept, Inc., from 1992 to 1997 and led the company through its initial public offering. Mr. Higgins currently serves as a director of Pulmatrix, Inc. and Voyager Therapeutics. Mr. Higgins began his pharmaceutical career as a sales representative for Schering-Plough Corporation in 1986. Mr. Higgins earned his B.S. from Cornell University and holds a M.B.A. from the Amos Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College.
Stephen Hoffman, M.D., Ph.D. has served as a member of our board of directors since December 2010. Dr. Hoffman has been a Senior Advisor to PDL BioPharma, Inc. since February 2014. Prior to that, Dr. Hoffman served as a managing director at Skyline Ventures, a venture capital firm, from May 2007 to February 2014. From January 2003 to March 2007, Dr. Hoffman was a general partner at TVM Capital, a venture capital firm. Prior to that, he served as President, Chief Executive Officer and a director of Allos Therapeutics, Inc. ("Allos"), a biopharmaceutical company, from 1994 to 2002, and as Chairman of the Board until 2012. From 1990 to 1994, Dr. Hoffman completed a fellowship in clinical oncology and a residency/fellowship in dermatology, both at the University of Colorado. Dr. Hoffman was the scientific founder of Somatogen Inc., a biotechnology company that was acquired by Baxter International, Inc., a global medical products and services company, in 1998, where he held the position of Vice President of Science and Technology from 1987 until 1990. In addition to serving as a director of our Company, he currently serves as a director of several biopharmaceutical companies, including AcelRx, Inc., Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Collegium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Proteon Therapeutics, Inc. Previously, Dr. Hoffman served on the board of directors of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a pharmaceutical company that was acquired by GlaxoSmithKline, in 2008. Dr. Hoffman holds a Ph.D. in bio-organic chemistry from Northwestern University and an M.D. from the University of Colorado School of Medicine.
George Siber, M.D. has served as a member of our board of directors since 2007. From 1996 to 2007, Dr. Siber served as Executive Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of Wyeth Vaccines ("Wyeth"). While at Wyeth, Dr. Siber oversaw the development and approval of multiple widely-used childhood vaccines, including Prevnar, a pneumococcal vaccine which has achieved multibillion dollar revenues; Acel-Imune, an acellular pertussis vaccine; and Meningitec, a meningococcal meningitis vaccine. Prior to Wyeth, Dr. Siber was Director of the Massachusetts Public Health Biologic Laboratories and a Harvard Medical School Associate Professor of Medicine at Dana Farber Cancer Institute. During this time, Dr. Siber led the research and manufacturing of multiple vaccines and immune globulins including Respigam, a human immune globulin against respiratory syncytial virus. Since 2007, Dr. Siber has served on the boards of directors of several vaccine companies, including Crucell, Selecta Biosciences, Vedantra Pharmaceuticals and Affinivax Inc., and as a consultant or scientific advisory board member of ClearPath Vaccines Company, of which he is currently the Chief Scientific Officer, PaxVax, Vaxess Technologies, Inc., the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, PATH, the Wellcome Trust, the European Commission (on vaccinations), the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, and the Korean FDA. Dr. Siber serves as a member of the Board of Trustees of the International Vaccine Institute. Dr. Siber holds an M.D. degree from McGill University in Canada, received post-doctoral training in Internal Medicine at Rush-Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago and Beth Israel Hospital in Boston and Infectious Disease and vaccinology training at Children’s Hospital and Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston.